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benzalkonium chloride
Introduction    
Coco Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride
CAS NO: 8001-54-5 or 63449-41-2, 139-07-1
Molecular weight:  340.0
Molecular Formula: C21H38NCl           
Structural Formula:
   

   
SYNONYMS:
Benzalkonium Chloride; BKC; Dodecyl Dimethyl; Benzyl ammonium Chloride 1227; Lauryl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride; Benzyl-Lauryl dimethyl ammonium chloride
   
Properties:
Benzalkonium Chloride is a kind of cationic surfactant, belonging to nonoxidizing boicide. It can efficiently withhold algae propagation and sludge reproduction. Benzalkonium Chloride also has dispersing and penetrating properties, can penetrate and remove sludge and algae, has advantages of low toxicity, no toxicity accumulation, soluble in water, convenient in use, unaffected by water hardness. Benzalkonium Chloride can be also used as anti-mildew agent, antistatic agent, emulsifying agent and amendment agent in woven and dyeing fields.

* Available Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC) 80% also *
50% SOLUTION OF Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC) (ALKYL DIMETHYL BENZYL AMMONIUM CHLORIDE)

Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC) is a safe, rapid acting Bactericide, Algaecide and Fungicide. Widely used as a combination sanitizer-disinfectant for the Hospital, Livestock and Personal Hygiene sectors / Sugar and water treatment etc.
  • Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC) Offers Strong Detergency & Rapid, Safe, Powerful Antimicrobial activity at low ppm
  • Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC) based Disinfectants are Non-toxic, Non-tainting & Odour-free at use dilutions
  • 50%w/w Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC) Passes Stringent BS EN 1276 Microbicidal Testing at 1:2000 dilution
  • Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC) displays a high level of Biodegradability when tested in accordance with OECD Test Protocol 301C
  • Compatible with Non-ionic, Ampholytic and Cationic surface-active agents
Alternative CAS No for Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC): 8001-54-5 UN No: 1760.
   
Package and Storage:
25 kg bag/drum
It is also available according to customers’ requirement.
It can be stored for two year in shady room and dry place.
   
Safety Protection:
It has a little smell of almond, no visible stimulation to skin. When contacted, flush with water.
   
Usage:
As nonoxidizing biocide, dosage of 50-100mg/L is preferred; as sludge remover, 200-300mg/L is preferred, adequate organosilyl antifoaming agent should be added for this purpose. This product can be used together with other fungicidal such as isothiazolinones, glutaraldegyde, dithionitrile methane for synergism, but cannot be used together with chlorophenols. If sewage is appeared after thrown of this product in circulating cool water, the sewage should be filtered or blown off in time to prevent their deposit in bottom of collecting tank after froth disappearance.
   
Applications:
Oil & Gas
It is used as Pipeline corrosion inhibitor. It prevents formation of sulphurous gases. It is also used as de-emulsifier/sludge breaker for enhanced oil extraction.

Manufacture of Detergent-Sanitizers
Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC) safely incorporates both Microbicidal & Detergency Properties into Products for Soil Penetration & Disinfection, which makes it ideal for Formulation of Hygiene Products for Personal Hygiene, Hospital, Livestock and Food & Dairy use. Benzalkonium Chloride has powerful potentiating activity in combination with other anti-microbial agents.
Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics
Safety Factor of Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC) leads to use in Various Topical and Ocular Products as a Preservative and to optimize Emolliency and Substantivity.

Food & Beverage Industry
On account of its non-toxic, non-corrosive, non-tainting, non-staining characteristics, Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC) is widely used in the Formulation of Cleaner-Sanitizers for:
Dairy Industry Slaughter Houses Breweries
Fisheries Bottling Plants Catering Industry
Food Storage Tanks Milk Storage Tanks Cold Storage plants
   
Polymer & Coatings
Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC) is widely used as an Anti-Static, Emulsifier & Preservative in the Coatings Industry (Paints, Wood Treatment, Electronics, etc.)
   
Chemical Industry
Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC) has diverse applications in the Chemical Industry as Precipitant, Phase Transfer Catalyst, Emulsifier/De-Emulsifier, etc.
   
Water Treatment
Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC) is used in Water & Effluent Treatment Formulations and Algaecides for Swimming Pools
   
Aquaculture
Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC) reduces the requirement of harmful Antibiotics in Aquaculture through improved hygiene. It is used for Water Treatment, General Site Disinfection, Fish Parasite Removal, and Prevention of Infectious Disease in Fish & Shellfish.
   
Timber Protection
Global environmental concern has led to increasing replacement of chlorinated biocides with safer, biodegradable Benzalkonium Chloride in Wood Protection. Benzalkonium displays excellent fungicidal and algaecidal properties, and is highly effective against other organisms particularly in combination formulations.
   
Pulp & Paper Industry
Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC) is used as a General Microbicide for Slime Control & Odor Management, and improves Paper Handling (Imparts Strength & Antistatic properties)
   
Textile Industry
Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC) solutions are used as Moth Repellents, Permanent Retarders in Dyeing of Acrylic Fibers with Cationic Dyestuffs.
   
Leather Industry
Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC) inhibits growth of Mould & Mildew on Hides. It facilitates Leather Softening, Wetting & Dyeing.
   
Horticulture & Household
Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC) is highly effective against Mould, Mildew, Moss, Fungi & Algae and is used for cleaning and preparation of all types of Surfaces: Greenhouses, Roofing, Paths, Wooden decking, Sheds, Masonry
   
Dental Use
Topically, benzalkonium chloride is used for cold sores and fever blisters.
   
Embalming Use
In embalming, benzalkonium chloride's primary use is as a disinfecting chemical; however, it is also used as a deodorant.
   
Other Applications
The applications are extremely wide ranging, from disinfectant formulations, such as being an active ingredient in Dettol and Lysol brand products, to microbial corrosion inhibition in the oilfield sector, and a multi-surface mould, algae and moss remover. It is used in:

  • Pharmaceuticals such as leave-on skin antiseptics
  • Antiseptic in Bactine to safely treat childhood scrapes and cuts.
  • Advanced, next-generation hand sanitizers
  • Hygienic towelettes and wet wipes
  • Cosmetics such as eye and nasal drops, as a preservative
  • Cleaners for floor and hard surfaces as a disinfectant
  • High-level surgical instrument sterilizing and disinfection solutions
  • Air and surface sprayable disinfectants
  • Over-the-counter herpes cold sore and fever blister single-application treatments
  • Algaecide
Benzalkonium chloride and other alcohol-free solutions are often used in preparations used for skin disinfection prior to use of syringes.
New generation, plant-derived versions are used in hand sanitizers that are more effective and safer than alcohol gels. As an antiseptic, it has the advantage of not burning when put on a wound, which is not the case with ethanol-based antiseptics or hydrogen peroxide. As the antiseptic in Bactine, benzalkonium chloride has been used safely for decades on childhood scrapes and cuts.

Biological activity
The greatest biocidal activity is associated with the C12-C14 alkyl derivatives. The mechanism of bactericidal/microbicidal action is thought to be due to disruption of intermolecular interactions. This can cause dissociation of cellular membrane lipid bilayers, which compromises cellular permeability controls and induces leakage of cellular contents. Other biomolecular complexes within the bacterial cell can also undergo dissociation. Enzymes, which finely control a wide range of respiratory and metabolic cellular activities, are particularly susceptible to deactivation. Critical intermolecular interactions and tertiary structures in such highly specific biochemical systems can be readily disrupted by cationic surfactants.

Benzalkonium chloride solutions are fast-acting biocidal agents with a moderately long duration of action. They are active against bacteria and some viruses, fungi, and protozoa. Bacterial spores are considered to be resistant. Solutions are bacteriostatic or bactericidal according to their concentration. Gram-positive bacteria are generally more susceptible than Gram-negative. Activity is not greatly affected by pH, but increases substantially at higher temperatures and prolonged exposure times. In a 1998 study utilizing the FDA protocol, a non-alcohol sanitizer utilizing the active ingredient benzalkonium chloride met the FDA performance standards, while Purell, a popular alcohol-based sanitizer, did not. The study found that a benzalkonium chloride-based sanitizer was the most favorable non-alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Advancements in the quality and efficacy of benzalkonium chloride in current non-alcohol hand sanitizers has addressed the CDC concerns regarding gram negative bacteria, with the leading products being equal if not more effective against gram negative, particularly NDM1 and other antibiotic resistant bacteria.

Newer formulations using benzalkonium blended with various quaternary ammonium derivatives can be used to extend the biocidal spectrum and enhance the efficacy of benzalkonium based disinfection products. This technique has been used to improve virucidal activity of quaternary ammonium-based formulations to healthcare infection hazards such as hepatitis, HIV, etc. Quaternary ammonium formulations are now the disinfectants of choice for hospitals. This is on account of user and patient safety even on contact with treated surfaces and the absence of harmful fumes. Benzalkonium solutions for hospital use tend to be neutral to alkaline, non-corrosive on metal surfaces, non-staining, and safe to use on all washable surfaces.

The use of appropriate supporting excipients can also greatly improve efficacy and detergency, and prevent deactivation under use conditions. Formulation requires great care, as benzalkonium solutions can readily be inactivated in the presence of organic and inorganic contamination. Solutions are incompatible with soaps, and must not be mixed with anionic surfactants. Hard water salts can also reduce biocidal activity. As with any disinfectant, it is recommended that surfaces are free from visible dirt and interfering materials for maximal disinfection performance by quaternary ammonium products.

Although hazardous levels are not likely to be reached under normal use conditions, benzalkonium and other detergents can pose a hazard to marine organisms. Quaternary ammonium disinfectants are effective at very low ppm levels, so excess use should be avoided.